Ebola virus disease ( EVD ), also known as Ebola or Ebola hemorrhagic is a viral hemorrhagic fever which affects humans and other primates, it is caused by Ebola viruses. Usually or normally signs and symptoms of this viral can be seen or typically starts between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever and other signs are a sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches. These are common and can be mistaken as a normal fever. After some time other signs can also appear like vomiting, diarrhea and rash usually starts, liver and kidneys performance decreases slowly. Person at this stage of viral begin to bleed both internally and externally. After six to sixteen days of getting fever other symptoms starts showing like low blood pressure because of the fluid loss.
There are many ways through which this viral can spread. Following is the whole list:
Due to direct contact with body fluids, such as blood, of an infected person or other animal.
Also through contact with an item recently contaminated with bodily fluids.
Semen or breast milk of a person even after recovery from EVD may carry the virus for several weeks to months.
As dangerous as it may sound but fruit bats are the natural carrier of this virus without being affected by it.
Other diseases such as malaria, cholera, typhoid fever and other viral hemorrhagic fever may resemble EVD.
Signs and Symptoms of Ebola Viral Disease
When a person gets exposed to this viral it may take two to twenty one days for symptoms to show, usually four to ten days. However, recent estimates based on mathematical models predicts that in about 5 % cases it can take more than 21 days for these symptoms to develop.
Symptoms usually begin with a sudden influenza like stage, and the causes for this are feeling tired more often, fever, weakness, decreased appetite, muscular pain, joint pain, headache, sore throat. The fever will be more than 38.3 degree C ( 101 degree F ), which is often followed by vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. And shortness of breath and chest pain may also occur, along with swelling, headaches and confusion. In some of the cases the skin can also develop a maculopapular rash, five to seven days after symptoms begin to show.
In some of the cases internal and external bleeding may occur. This typically begins after five to seven days after the first symptoms. It has been seen that people affected by the viral show some decreased blood clotting. Bleeding from mucous membrane has been reported in 40- 50 % of cases. This can or may cause vomiting blood, coughing up of blood, or blood in stool. Bleeding in the skin can cause petechiae, purpura, ecchymoses or hematomas ( especially around the needle injection sites). Bleeding into the whites of the eyes may also occur. Heavy bleeding is not common but if it happens it’s usually located within the gastrointestinal tract.
Recovery from EVD
After coming to know about the symptoms of EVD, it’s recovery can start or may begin between seven to fourteen days. If Ebola viral is not treated properly it can result in death of the infected person.
Those who recover from this deadly disease often have ongoing muscular and joint pain, liver inflammation, decreased hearing, and can also have continued feeling of tiredness, decreased appetite, and vision can also decrease.
What are the causes?
EVD in humans is caused by four of the five viruses of the genus Ebola virus. These four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly Zaire Ebola virus). Out of these four EBOV is the most dangerous of them all and is responsible for the largest number of break outs.
The basic thing to do if you don’t want to catch EVD is to wear proper clothing which includes gloves, gowns, goggles, masks. According to US centers for Disease Control the whole body should be covered properly, leaving no skin exposed. Persons handling the object contaminated by infected person fluids should also wear these protective clothing.
The infected person should be isolated for the benefits of others around. Ebola virus can be eliminated with the heat ( heating for thirty to sixty minutes ) boiling for five minutes.
How can you disinfect surfaces?
You can disinfect surfaces by some lipid solvents such as alcohol-based products, detergents, bleach, bleaching powder, and other suitable disinfectants. Everyone dealing with EVD should have knowledge about it.
After 40 years of continuous struggle of finding vaccine for Ebola and since the first outbreak of EVD, there is finally a successful experimental Ebola vaccine that could be available as early as 2018. On December 22, The Lancet Medical Journal released results from a trial showing that the vaccine called RVSV-ZEBOV, provides 100% protection from the Ebola virus.
The vaccine is going through a approval process.